Price, Duncan M.; Reading, Michael; Hammiche, Azzedine; Pollock, Hubert M.; Micro-Thermal Analysis: scanning thermal microscopy and localised thermal analysis. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 191 (1) (1999) 85-96

Micro-thermal analysis combines the imaging capabilities of atomic force microscopy with the ability to characterise, with high spatial resolution, the thermal behaviour of materials. The conventional AFM tip is replaced by a miniature heater/thermometer which enables a surface to visualised according to its response to the input of heat (in addition to measuring its topography). Areas of interest may then be selected and localised thermal analysis (modulated temperature calorimetry and thermomechanical analysis) carried out. Localised dynamic mechanical measurements are also possible. Spatially resolved chemical analysis can be performed using the same basic apparatus by means of pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or high-resolution photothermal infrared spectrometry.

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